Professional Development Title: Integrating Technology Tools in the Classroom

Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

Definition Concept
Learning Community Expert
Definition
Facilitating Learning, Chapter 2
Regina Wright
Facilitating Learning in educational technology emphasizes the understanding that the learner controls his/her own learning and ultimately shows ownship of it. Learning can be influenced by teachers and designers but in a way that is facilitative and not causative, with the acknowledgement of the diversity of the individual learner. (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008).
Learning Theories-describe how humans learn (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008, p. 18);

  • Behaviorism (observable events)
  • Cognitivism (inferred mental conditions)
  • Constructionist view (learning being primarily under learner's control)

Instructional Theories-prescribe teaching methods (creating the best conditions to help learners acquire new knowledge and capabilities)
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Descriptive (how people learn)

  • Prescriptive (instructional implications must be equally true whether or not they have been tested and upheld empirically)
Improving Performance, Chapter 3
Shauna Cromwell

  • · Improving Individual Learner Performance
    o Students learn by having worthwhile goals and gaining new knowledge and skills that are transfereable. Learning is worthwhile and not just focused on passing a test.
    · Improving Performance of Teachers and Designers
    o Cuts down learning time and increases learning effectiveness
    o Create more appealing lessons and cuts down on preparation time
    · Improving Performance of Organization
    o Improves productivity and effectiveness
Creating, Chapter 4
Jane DeWitt

Creation refers to the research, theory, and practice involoved in the generation of instructional material, learning environments, and large teaching learning systems in many different settings, formal and nonformal (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008).

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Creating


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A. Evolution of Practices and Theories for Creating
1. New Media Trigger Paradigm Shifts
a. the field of educational technology began as visual education with educators using motion pictures and projected slides
b. Audiovisual(AV) education emerged midcentury with radio, sound film, and recorded audio
c. focus was on creating presentations that were attractive to the eye and ear (“wow” factor)
2. 1950 – 1960: Educational Technology
a. shifted to what learners were doing rather than what they were watching
b. focus of design and production shifted from making AV presentations to creating learning
environments in which learners had the opportunity to practice new skills
d. constant feedback
3. 1980s: Birth of Microcomputer
a. computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
4. 1990s: Internet allowed computer capabilities to become networked
a. potential for educational value magnified
b. Web made it easy for individuals to think and work collaboratively
c. anyone, anywhere could access interesting computer-based exploratory environments
d. designers were trying to design experiences not just materials
5. Early 21st century: CAI to Web-based learning environments
B. Creating Media: Levels of Sophistication (Kemp & Smellie, 1994)
1. Mechanical (lowest level)
a. simple procedures of cutting and pasting a picture onto a Web page, photocopying
a graph to make a transparency
2. Creative Level: producer has to put thought and planning into the process
a. garner attention and make a memorable impact
b. does not necessarily entail systematic planning for specific learning outcomes
3. Design Level: covers cases in which a designer or team plan and assemble material or a whole learning
environment in order to reach a specified learning goal.
a. combine subject matter expertise, pedagogical methods, visual design knowledge
b. project could entail multiple people collaborating over a period of time
c. project management essential
d. The IDI Model: Instructional Development Institute packaged training program on instructional development for teachers (1970s)
1. The Define Phase: analysis is done to clearly define the problem being solved, the situational constraints, and a plan of work is organized
2. The Design Phase: in which objectives are specified and methods for attaining those objectives are decided up and instantiated in a prototype
3. The Develop Stage: the prototype is tested and revisions are made on the prototype
e. Military Services ISD Model
1. Define
a. identify problem
b. analyze setting
c. organize management
2. Develop
a. identify objectives
b. specify methods
c. construct prototypes
3. Evaluate
a. test prototypes
b. analyze results
c. implement/recycle
f. The ADDIE: serves as a label for the family of systems-approach models
1. Analyze
a. description of learners
b. tasks to be learned
c. instructional objectives
2. Design
a. descriptions and objectives transformed to lesson specifics
3. Development
a. guide selection or production of the materials and activities of lesson
4. Implementation
a. instructors, materials, activities, and learners come together to use products
5. Evaluate
a. determine if objectives were met
g. The Dick and Carey Model: recommends specifying the assessment instruments
prior to developing an instructional strategy
C. Stages in the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) Process
1. The Analysis Stage: determine whether instruction is need
a. design-development process
b. front-end analysis: gather information to determine if need exists
2. The Design Stage: content, sequence, strategies, methods are chosen to meet the
specified learning goals
3. The Development Stage: the specifications resulting from the design stage are turned
into concrete material that can be used by instructors and learners
4. The Implementation Stage: After prototype, learning environment or instructional
system has been tested and revised, it is ready to be used by the learner
5. The Evaluative Stage:
a. Formative evaluation
b. Summative evaluation
c. Project management
Using, Chapter 5
Nikisha Greer
Using- the interaction of the learner (preferences/learning styles and ability levels) with educational technology resources (aligned with objectives and used at a discretion) with the purpose of mastering instructional goals.
Managing, Chapter 6
Regina Wright and Shauna Cromwell
Management— all work is performed in an ethical manner that meets the high standards of the field of educational technology through planning, coordinating, organizing, and supervising resources. Management includes leading effectively, managing appropriate technological processes and resources, and providing access to information and delivery systems in the context of managing instructional design projects. School leaders must show "concerted, visible, and constant dedication". (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008, p. 183)
Audiovisual –directors or coordinators of media services; acquiring audiovisual materials and equipment, to maintain the collection, and to help teachers identify and use materials for course enhancement.
Instructional Design Consulting—collaboration with instructors to develop learning environments that were more productive for student learning. (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008, p. 177)
Performance Management—to monitor and control the quality of the performance of individuals working in an organization (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008, p. 181-182).

· Statistical Quality Control (SQC)-purpose is to ensure that defects are not made in educational technology.
· Total Quality Control (TQC)—dedication to continuous improvement
Management in Educational Technology—includes managing projects, managing resources, managing the performance of people, or managing programs.
· Project Management
o The project manager is responsible for the outcome of the entire project
§ delegate duties
§ arbitrate disputes
§ meet with clients
· Resource Management
o Resource manager is responsible for delivering information and resources
· Personnel Management
o Personnel manager ensures that the right people with the right skills are working on the project
· Program Management
o Program manger supports long term programs that are an integral part of the organization
Ethical Considerations, Chapter 11
Jane DeWitt
While professional ethics do not directly control and cannot force good behavior there is an underlying inclination to being good. A set of standards in regard to ethics and educational technologists needed to be deeloped as having an approved and enforceable code serves as a sign of holding professional status (Yeaman, Eastmond Jr., Napper, 2008). Currently, AECT Ethics Committee believes that it is vitally important to maintain ethical awareness. In doing this, people need to be aware of what is ethically aceptable and what is not. To educate members scenarios are printed that depict realistic but hypothetical problems.Since new technologies evolve that can create new opportunities for learning and for people to go be considered unethical the definition needs to be able to incorporate these too.The question "How are we to be ethical professionals?" ought to be the root question in defining educational technology.
Processes, Chapter 7
All members
Educational technologists design, develop, and implement effective resources for learning. The processes is the common means as to how techologists facilitate learning goals and improve performance.
Resources, Chapter 8
Nikisha Greer
Resources- are the multiple tools (hardware, technology, materials, text, devices, experts in that field, etc.) that assist the learner in achieving success in mastering (retention, performance, and based on the student's preferences) an instructional goal by incorporating differentiated instruction.